R B Duncan Press

Scientific Letter
A Forum for Independent Voices
August, 27, 2004 Edition

(R B Duncan Press homepage)

Free Energy from Outside the Matrix

by Russell E. Reirson

(Reprinted with permission)


Studies of black hole physics by people like Hawking and Bekenstein suggests that our perceptual universe, which is perceived to have three spatial dimensions, might instead be "written" on a two-dimensional surface, analogously to a computer generated holographic projection. The everyday perceptions of our world as three-dimensional could be a type of optical delusion of our consciousness, or merely one of two alternative ways of describing reality.

The universe could be a system of discrete interlocking "pixels" encoded on a 2-dimensional substrate.

A quote from the book "The Expanding Universe" by Sir Arthur Eddington:

QUOTE:

All change is relative. The universe is expanding relatively to our common standards; our common standards are shrinking relatively to the size of the universe. The theory of the "expanding universe" might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom" .

END QUOTE

Holography uses light in a manner that produces three-dimensional images on a photographic plate or film. A holographically generated universe, would cause an observer to see the universe as being without limits, and at the same time the universe would be finite.

The holographic universe would be "painted" on a spherical surface of 2 dimensions and projected inward, retaining an appearance of being without limit.

Information exchange among physical processes would take precedence over fields or space-time.

Each event in space-time has its own intrinsic measure of time, its own "present moment", which is a point in the the separation plane of past and future, with the future as an uncertainty.

Why not represent the present moment of an arbitrary observer as the inward collapse of the "past" light-cone/circular cross section to the point of the "present moment" and the outward expanse of the future light-cone/circular cross section into the uncertain future.

A 2-dimensional planar "cross-section" of the present moment, which is the overlapping of past history, present moment, and future uncertainty. p is the observational center of the overlapping cross sections. The "proper time".

[<-[->[<-[p]->]<-]->]

Now it appears that the "past" moments are cumulative and are increasing in information density = Shannon entropy as a cumulative overlapping Lorentz invariant circular cross sections via holographically generated[discrete] pixels.

What is needed, is energy...

Fundamental physical particles have opposites, e.g. electron and positron, such, that the duality of opposites has served to predict the existence of particles later on discovered. Actions create equal and opposite reactions in physics, as described by Newton's laws, which still have an accepted range of validity.

The minimumal amount of information is the difference between two possible values, hence the definition of the bit as its unit. Correspondingly, two valued logic plays a fundamental role in formal logic, and process logic starts with dialectic antitheses. Drawing a distinction or asserting a connection between two entities always involves two concepts.

High symmetry structures are extrema of the universal interaction potential, with regards to perturbations that break the symmetry.

Do "gravitons" have gravity? They are, after all, a form of energy...

Theoretically speaking, the quanta of gravitation is called a graviton. A graviton can emit a virtual graviton, where we define a "virtual graviton" as a theoretical construct used in the calculations of "perturbation theory".

Perturbation theory is an approximation method that leads to an expression for the desired solution in terms of a power series in some "small parameter" that quantifies the deviation from the exactly solvable problem. A "parameter" is a measurement, or value, on which something else depends.

So the virtual graviton can emit yet another virtual graviton, and so on. This does not imply that the gravitational force will be infinite anywhere because the virtual particles will still obey Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.

DE * Dt >= hbar/2

where DE is the uncertainty in the energy and Dt is the uncertainty in the time; hbar is Planck's constant divided by 2*pi.

The virtual particle can violate conservation of energy by an amount DE, but only for the small amount of time - Dt - given by the Uncertainty Principle, before it vanishes. The energy of the virtual particle can be anything from a minimum energy for the graviton, to infinity, depending on the quantity under consideration.

Gravitons with a lot of energy can't last very long and will not have much of an effect before they are absorbed. And gravitons that last a long time don't have much energy, so they also can't have much of an effect either - also in accordance with Heisenberg uncertainty.

Any "real" particle has the relativistic Einsteinian relationship with its energy, E, its momentum. p, and its mass, m with c as the speed of light in vacuum:

E^2 = p^2 c^2+ m^2 c^4

Note that for a particle at relative rest, p will equal zero and the relationship thus becomes E = mc2. This is the minimum possible energy for a matter particle "at rest".

Virtual particles are a mental construct, basically a "descriptive process" invented by physicists in order to talk about the processes in terms of Feynman diagrams. These diagrams are an extremely efficient shorthand, for tedious perturbation calculations which give the probability for a particular particle exchange process.

Feynman diagrams have lines that represent mathematical expressions, but each line can also be viewed as representing a translating particle. However in the intermediate stages of a process the lines represent particles that can never be observed. Because these particles do not have the required E = p^2c^2 + m^2c^4 Einsteinian relationship between their energy, momentum and mass, they are called "virtual particles".

During the early years of quantum mechanics, Paul Dirac theorized that the vacuum was actually filled with particles in negative energy states, consequently giving birth to the concept of a "physical vacuum" which is not empty at all. Quantum mechanics also predicted that invisible particles could become materialized for a short time and that these virtual particle appearances should exert a force that is measurable

The negentropic effects of consciousness/self awareness are described via a set of nonlinear partial differential equations.

The basic feature of cognitive functions appears to be the simulation of possible future scenarios via a self modeling process. Memory corresponds to a simulation of past to present to future plans, with predictions to the simulation of ever further future scenarios. The thermodynamic arrow of time shows how time gives a reliable simulation of the past via repeatable experiments/memories, such, that it is so reliable that one speaks of actual memories rather than predictions of the past. The possible nonuniqueness of the classical spacetime and related classical nondeterminism suggests a possible origin for the simulatory aspects of consciousness built in to the geometric structure of space-time.

Two different solutions to Einstein's field equations, represent the two types of curvature, Ricci curvature and Weyl curvature. The Kerr vacuum solution, models space-time outside a spherical rotating body such as a star, and it has a zero Ricci curvature, with a nonzero Weyl curvature at each point/event in the space-time. The general solution of Einstein`s equations with the energy-momentum tensor of an ideal dust in a Friedman universe, which models the universe on a very large scale, has a zero Weyl curvature but a nonzero Ricci curvature at each point/event in the space-time.

The Weyl tensor becomes analogous to the electromagnetic field tensor F_ab, which can be seen as an antisymmetric 4x4 matrix with 6 independent components at each point/event in the space-time. Basically, the Einstein field equation can represented as a set of equations analogous to Maxwell's field equations, being a set of non- linear gravitational field equations.

The large extra dimensions that are felt only by gravity can reveal themselves through the emission of gravitational Kaluza-Klein states. The emission is a way of describing graviton "evaporation". Moreover, because of the relatively large size of the extra dimension, the mass difference between one Kaluza-Klein state and the next is very small. There is therefore a huge number of such Kaluza-Klein excitations below the new fundamental scale of gravity.

A typical process might involve a proton and antiproton colliding to produce a single spray or jet of particles plus a graviton, which is emitted into the compactified dimensional landscape.

Since the energy of the graviton would be lost from the macroscopic 4-D world, the experimental signature for such a process, would be an excess of collisions with one jet and a "missing" energy, above and beyond the expectations of the Standard Model.

Due to the stronger gravitational interactions at short distances, there is a slight possibility that microscopic black holes can be produced. Such small black holes would probably quickly evaporate and not be dangerous. They would resemble exotic particles that decayed very quickly. Hence gravity is also virtual.

What if it is possible to "feed" such a microscopic black hole with photons? - electrons?, thus extending its lifetime?

Now imagine using two of these micro black holes to form a symmetric hyperdimensional "warp-shell" over a space-craft, thus enabling its Alcubierre warp drive.

The energy in a section of vacuum can be altered by the material around it, giving the "Casimir Effect". The effect has been experimentally verified by positioning two uncharged parallel metal plates, creating a symmetric - attractive force, pressing them together; the force only becomes measurable when the distance between the two plates is extremely small. If the two opposing metal plates move rapidly, some of the vacuum waves can become real waves.

Some people propose that a form of "dynamical Casimir effect" may be responsible for the mysterious phenomenon known as sonoluminescence, which is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound waves.

In short, tapping the zero point energy is the result of generating an asymmetric Casimir effect via symmetry breaking. Chaotic perturbations give rise to stochastic fluctuation parameters. Tap into the vacuum energy via a feedback resonance loop utilizing longitudinal vibrations. .

So yes, the Casimir force is a symmetric attraction between parallel metallic plates that has been measured and the effect can be attributed to an extremely small non-zero imbalance in the zero- point fluctuations in the region between the plates versus the region outside the plates. Since it is symmetrical, it cannot be utilized for "work = force*distance" But if some asymmetric variation of the Casimir force could be discovered, the quantum vacuum would provide a heretofore untapped "sea" of energy:

1+1 = 2+ D

The conservation of energy is a symmetry.

Break the symmetry and energy is no longer conserved...



The "A" Laws

Dirac claimed we would find an approximation of how this all worked,



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