(Reprinted with permission)
Studies of black hole physics by people like Hawking and Bekenstein
suggests that our perceptual universe, which is perceived to have
three spatial dimensions, might instead be "written" on a
two-dimensional surface, analogously to a computer generated
holographic projection. The everyday perceptions of our world as
three-dimensional could be a type of optical delusion of our
consciousness, or merely one of two alternative ways of describing
The universe could be a system of discrete interlocking "pixels" encoded on a 2-dimensional substrate.
A quote from the book "The Expanding Universe" by Sir Arthur Eddington:
All change is relative. The universe is expanding relatively to our
common standards; our common standards are shrinking relatively to
the size of the universe. The theory of the "expanding universe"
might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom" .
Holography uses light in a manner that produces three-dimensional
images on a photographic plate or film. A holographically generated
universe, would cause an observer to see the universe as being
without limits, and at the same time the universe would be finite.
The holographic universe would be "painted" on a spherical surface of 2 dimensions and projected inward, retaining an appearance of being
Information exchange among physical processes would take precedence
over fields or space-time.
Each event in space-time has its own intrinsic measure of time, its
own "present moment", which is a point in the the separation plane of
past and future, with the future as an uncertainty.
Why not represent the present moment of an arbitrary observer as the
inward collapse of the "past" light-cone/circular cross section to
the point of the "present moment" and the outward expanse of the future
light-cone/circular cross section into the uncertain future.
A 2-dimensional planar "cross-section" of the present moment, which
is the overlapping of past history, present moment, and future
uncertainty. p is the observational center of the overlapping cross sections. The "proper time".
Now it appears that the "past" moments are cumulative and are
increasing in information density = Shannon entropy as a cumulative
overlapping Lorentz invariant circular cross sections via
holographically generated[discrete] pixels.
What is needed, is energy...
Fundamental physical particles have opposites, e.g. electron and
positron, such, that the duality of opposites has served to predict
the existence of particles later on discovered. Actions create equal
and opposite reactions in physics, as described by Newton's laws,
which still have an accepted range of validity.
The minimumal amount of information is the difference between two
possible values, hence the definition of the bit as its unit.
Correspondingly, two valued logic plays a fundamental role in formal
logic, and process logic starts with dialectic antitheses. Drawing a
distinction or asserting a connection between two entities always
involves two concepts.
High symmetry structures are extrema of the universal interaction
potential, with regards to perturbations that break the symmetry.
Do "gravitons" have gravity? They are, after all, a form of
Theoretically speaking, the quanta of gravitation is called a
graviton. A graviton can emit a virtual graviton, where we define
a "virtual graviton" as a theoretical construct used in the
calculations of "perturbation theory".
Perturbation theory is an approximation method that leads to an
expression for the desired solution in terms of a power series in
some "small parameter" that quantifies the deviation from the
exactly solvable problem. A "parameter" is a measurement, or value,
on which something else depends.
So the virtual graviton can emit yet another virtual graviton, and
so on. This does not imply that the gravitational force will be
infinite anywhere because the virtual particles will still obey
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.
DE * Dt >= hbar/2
where DE is the uncertainty in the energy and Dt is the uncertainty
in the time; hbar is Planck's constant divided by 2*pi.
The virtual particle can violate conservation of energy by an amount
DE, but only for the small amount of time - Dt - given by the
Uncertainty Principle, before it vanishes. The energy of the virtual
particle can be anything from a minimum energy for the graviton, to
infinity, depending on the quantity under consideration.
Gravitons with a lot of energy can't last very long and will not
have much of an effect before they are absorbed. And gravitons that
last a long time don't have much energy, so they also can't have
much of an effect either - also in accordance with Heisenberg
Any "real" particle has the relativistic Einsteinian relationship
with its energy, E, its momentum. p, and its mass, m with c as the
speed of light in vacuum:
E^2 = p^2 c^2+ m^2 c^4
Note that for a particle at relative rest, p will equal zero and the
relationship thus becomes E = mc2. This is the minimum possible
energy for a matter particle "at rest".
Virtual particles are a mental construct, basically a "descriptive
process" invented by physicists in order to talk about the processes
in terms of Feynman diagrams. These diagrams are an extremely
efficient shorthand, for tedious perturbation calculations which
give the probability for a particular particle exchange process.
Feynman diagrams have lines that represent mathematical expressions,
but each line can also be viewed as representing a translating
particle. However in the intermediate stages of a process the lines
represent particles that can never be observed. Because these
particles do not have the required E = p^2c^2 + m^2c^4 Einsteinian
relationship between their energy, momentum and mass, they are
called "virtual particles".
During the early years of quantum mechanics, Paul Dirac theorized
that the vacuum was actually filled with particles in negative
energy states, consequently giving birth to the concept of
a "physical vacuum" which is not empty at all. Quantum mechanics
also predicted that invisible particles could become materialized
for a short time and that these virtual particle appearances should
exert a force that is measurable
The negentropic effects of consciousness/self awareness are
described via a set of nonlinear partial differential equations.
The basic feature of cognitive functions appears to be the
simulation of possible future scenarios via a self modeling process.
Memory corresponds to a simulation of past to present to future
plans, with predictions to the simulation of ever further future
scenarios. The thermodynamic arrow of time shows how time gives a
reliable simulation of the past via repeatable experiments/memories,
such, that it is so reliable that one speaks of actual memories
rather than predictions of the past. The possible nonuniqueness of
the classical spacetime and related classical nondeterminism
suggests a possible origin for the simulatory aspects of
consciousness built in to the geometric structure of space-time.
Two different solutions to Einstein's field equations, represent the
two types of curvature, Ricci curvature and Weyl curvature. The Kerr
vacuum solution, models space-time outside a spherical rotating body
such as a star, and it has a zero Ricci curvature, with a nonzero
Weyl curvature at each point/event in the space-time. The general
solution of Einstein`s equations with the energy-momentum tensor of
an ideal dust in a Friedman universe, which models the universe on a
very large scale, has a zero Weyl curvature but a nonzero Ricci
curvature at each point/event in the space-time.
The Weyl tensor becomes analogous to the electromagnetic field
tensor F_ab, which can be seen as an antisymmetric 4x4 matrix with 6
independent components at each point/event in the space-time.
Basically, the Einstein field equation can represented as a set of
equations analogous to Maxwell's field equations, being a set of non-
linear gravitational field equations.
The large extra dimensions that are felt only by gravity can reveal
themselves through the emission of gravitational Kaluza-Klein
states. The emission is a way of describing graviton "evaporation".
Moreover, because of the relatively large size of the extra
dimension, the mass difference between one Kaluza-Klein state and
the next is very small. There is therefore a huge number of such
Kaluza-Klein excitations below the new fundamental scale of gravity.
A typical process might involve a proton and antiproton colliding to
produce a single spray or jet of particles plus a graviton, which is
emitted into the compactified dimensional landscape.
Since the energy of the graviton would be lost from the macroscopic
4-D world, the experimental signature for such a process, would be
an excess of collisions with one jet and a "missing" energy, above
and beyond the expectations of the Standard Model.
Due to the stronger gravitational interactions at short distances,
there is a slight possibility that microscopic black holes can be
produced. Such small black holes would probably quickly evaporate
and not be dangerous. They would resemble exotic particles that
decayed very quickly. Hence gravity is also virtual.
What if it is possible to "feed" such a microscopic black hole with
photons? - electrons?, thus extending its lifetime?
Now imagine using two of these micro black holes to form a symmetric
hyperdimensional "warp-shell" over a space-craft, thus enabling its
Alcubierre warp drive.
The energy in a section of vacuum can be altered by the material
around it, giving the "Casimir Effect". The effect has been
experimentally verified by positioning two uncharged parallel metal
plates, creating a symmetric - attractive force, pressing them
together; the force only becomes measurable when the distance
between the two plates is extremely small. If the two opposing metal
plates move rapidly, some of the vacuum waves can become real waves.
Some people propose that a form of "dynamical Casimir effect" may be
responsible for the mysterious phenomenon known as sonoluminescence,
which is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding
bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound waves.
In short, tapping the zero point energy is the result of generating
an asymmetric Casimir effect via symmetry breaking. Chaotic
perturbations give rise to stochastic fluctuation parameters. Tap
into the vacuum energy via a feedback resonance loop utilizing
longitudinal vibrations. .
So yes, the Casimir force is a symmetric attraction between parallel
metallic plates that has been measured and the effect can be
attributed to an extremely small non-zero imbalance in the zero-
point fluctuations in the region between the plates versus the
region outside the plates. Since it is symmetrical, it cannot be
utilized for "work = force*distance" But if some asymmetric
variation of the Casimir force could be discovered, the quantum
vacuum would provide a heretofore untapped "sea" of energy:
1+1 = 2+ D
The conservation of energy is a symmetry.
Break the symmetry and energy is no longer conserved...
The "A" Laws
Dirac claimed we would find an approximation of how this all worked,
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