From where is this quantity c^{2} derived?

Sol Eisenberg: and Tom Van Flandern are both quite correct in that we simply cannot square a speed. It makes no sense.

Viv Pope is adamant that c is not a speed.

I believe all three are quite correct.

I wish to thank the abovementioned people along with Tony Bermanseder and *Dr. Milo Wolff* for some insight into figuring out the solution to this problem.

Graduate students of QED know that a **pattern** of where electrons will and won't be found exists between each electron and another detecting electron at some other point in space and time.

The reason for this, as *Dr. Milo Wolff* discovered and mathematically proved, is that the electron resonates at a scalar resonance rate and this rate has to exactly match a certain finite multitude of electrons in its surroundings. Thus we have this **pattern** of voids and electrons.

QED scientists have a novel but cumbersome method for showing us this illusive **pattern** that exists between any two distant electrons where one is detecting and the other is being detected.

You can actually get an idea of this **pattern** with *Young's experiment* that shows you definite light and dark areas.

The interesting feature about this double slit method is this: if we only allow one quantum of light in at a time, they will in time build up the same exact pattern that multiple quanta give in a much shorter time.

So if space doesn't change and time remains the same then the **pattern** doesn't change and this is the foundation that "squaring the amplitude" in QED is built upon.

But now we have to understand why our eyes do not continually see this **pattern** all around us.

And it's because Viv Pope is right and c is not a velocity. It's what *Dr. Milo Wolff* discovered, the scalar frame rate that the electron---and you---are being built. It's sort of like a movie picture (cinema) frame rate.

Now if we consider the quark to have a frame rate the square of this then we can understand that all electrons have a scalar resonance spin frequency rate harmonically linked to the quark spin frequency resonance rate. But which of these many quark spin frequency resonant peaks will a single electron pick?

It's the TIMING that will be different for different electrons. They must have the same in phase peak with a certain in phase quark peak. But there will be many quark peaks that any one electron can pick from.

This is why our eye cannot see this fringe **pattern** because our eye sees the **complete range** of various different quark peaked TIMED electrons. These different TIMED electrons are what wipe out this two slit **pattern** from our eyes.

It's the various quark scalar resonance spin frequency peaks or frame rate resonances giving us these different TIMED electrons that produce our space and time or spacetime.

That this spacetime produced is only for us and not for the entire universe is apparent when we see we must use different rules and math for each different frequency spin/orbit system as QED (study of electrons) uses different rules and math from QCD, the study of quarks.

Therefore what we see as space, time and motion are really only phase relationships between us and our surroundings.

And this is why we can't notice motion in the microcosm nor anything beyond the Hubble limit.

As *Binary Stars* bind with each other spin up - spin down with their closest sides going in the same direction, so do electrons in magnetism and sigma bonding. Click the Binary Star link. If you make the masses the same in the top boxes then this also becomes a video of a spin up - spin down electron on the closest orbital to the nucleus. You can even move the "e" box and vary the eccentricity as the surrounding electrons actually would do to the two closest electrons to the nucleus.

The magnetic polar bond is much stronger than side to side (spin up - Spin down) binding because not only the closest sides but now the entire two binding electrons themselves are spinning the same direction on the same spin axis.

Stars, electrons and quarks all spin bind in this manner.

They all repel in this manner too because they all have gyro inertial qualities that will twist them away from the attracting positions (as long as they are perfectly free).

This attractive binding force does not fall off with the square of the distance. The number of binding pairs is what falls off with the square of the distance.

While pairs of electrons spin bind to cause magnetism and sigma and pi chemical bonding, quarks spin bind with nearby quarks to cause gravity and with distant quarks in the surrounding stars to cause inertia.

We notice the electron scalar spin frequency rate as c or 3 x 10^{8} meters per second.

We notice the quark scalar spin frequency rate as 9 x 10^{16} meters per second or c^{2}. This is consistent with what Yale University teaches its students that gravity acts almost instantly. This is closer to what Newton thought it did as to what Einstein thought it did. *Van Flandern* has shown us that gravity has no aberration yet light does proving Yale University to be right.

But as Wheeler and Feynman have taught us we can never measure this directly in our spacetime realm but we can and do notice it as an acceleration.

And now you know the reason for the principle of equivalence or why gravity can not be discerned from an acceleration. But more importantly now, you also know why E = mc^{2 }

Also read this: http://www.amperefitz.com/einstein.hoyle.htm

Be sure to read: http://www.amperefitz.com/acceleratingexpandinguniverse.htm

See this short, clear picture: http://www.amperefitz.com/principle-of-equivalence.htm

Also http://www.amperefitz.com/aphaseuniverse.htm

And http://www.rbduncan.com/schrod.htm

There's a lot more too.

And this you can find out by buying my latest book *Universities Asleep at the Switch* at Amazon.com or by reading it FREE simply by clicking the following links:

http://www.amperefitz.com/unvasleep.htm (This link is faster if you have dial up.)

http://www.amperefitz.com/ua_20071020_ck_ds_jm_ds.pdf (This is the book FREE in Adobe.).

Web pages are at: http://www.amperefitz.com & http://www.rbduncan.com

*Over 4 Decades of Daniel P. Fitzpatrick's Books, Papers and Thoughts*

Thanks for reading this. Let me know what YOU think. e-mail is Th1nker@indiainfo.com